The digitalization of learning has brought forth a plethora of methodologies to deliver and track educational content. Central to this transformation are the standards that govern how learning management systems (LMS) and eLearning content interact.
Among the pioneers in this realm are AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee) and SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model).
This article meticulously explores the definitions and contrasts between AICC and SCORM, providing a roadmap for eLearning professionals to navigate the nuanced landscape of digital learning standards.
AICC: A Precursor to Modern eLearning Standards
AICC, an acronym for Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee, represents one of the early frameworks aimed at standardizing the way eLearning content is developed, delivered, and interacted with within Learning Management Systems (LMS).
The standard facilitated the communication between the course content and the LMS, ensuring a streamlined and effective delivery of educational material.
The birth of AICC can be traced back to the aviation sector, which during the early days of computer-based training, identified a pressing need for a standardized approach to deliver and manage educational content.
The initiative was spearheaded by aviation professionals who recognized the potential of leveraging emerging digital technologies for training and skill development within the industry.
Their endeavor led to the establishment of the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee, which embarked on the mission to create standardized guidelines for eLearning content development and delivery.
The journey of AICC began in 1988, making it one of the pioneering bodies in setting eLearning standards. Over the years, AICC developed several guidelines, the most notable being the CMI (Computer Managed Instruction) guidelines which provided a structured protocol for communication between eLearning content and LMSs. These guidelines laid the groundwork for the HTTP AICC Communication Protocol (HACP), which allowed for the separation of course content from the LMS, a feature that provided a level of flexibility that was revolutionary at the time.
The significance of AICC's contributions became more apparent as the eLearning industry burgeoned. AICC’s guidelines served as a precursor to more evolved standards like SCORM, which took inspiration from AICC’s foundational principles to develop a more integrated approach to eLearning content delivery and tracking.
Despite its official disbandment in 2014, the legacy of AICC continues to resonate within the eLearning community. The principles and guidelines established by AICC during its operative years continue to serve as a reference point for modern eLearning standards, underlining the enduring impact of AICC on the digital learning landscape.
HTTP AICC Communication Protocol (HACP)
One of the hallmark features of AICC standards is the HTTP AICC Communication Protocol (HACP). This protocol facilitates the communication between the eLearning content and the Learning Management System (LMS), allowing for a seamless interchange of data. Unlike later standards like SCORM, AICC's HACP enables the content and the LMS to reside on different servers, providing a level of flexibility unique to AICC.
Separation of Content and LMS
The design philosophy of AICC promotes a clear separation between course content and the LMS. This separation allows for greater flexibility as organizations can host their content and LMS on different servers. This feature was particularly advantageous for industries with stringent security or compliance requirements.
AICC standards support cross-domain functionality, which was a revolutionary feature at the time of its inception. This capability allows eLearning content to be hosted on a different domain from the LMS, facilitating better control and management of content, and alleviating some of the security concerns associated with cross-domain communication.
Interoperable Course Structure
AICC introduced a structured and interoperable course framework. It defined a set of guidelines for course developers to structure their content in a way that could be easily imported into different LMSs while retaining the instructional design and user experience.
External System Communication
The AICC guidelines provided a framework for external system communication, allowing different systems within an organization to communicate with the LMS. This was a step towards creating a more integrated and cohesive eLearning ecosystem.
Robust Error Handling
AICC specified robust error handling procedures to ensure that the communication between the content and the LMS was reliable and accurate. This feature was critical in maintaining the integrity and consistency of the learning experience.
Descriptive Metadata Standards
AICC standards also touched upon the importance of descriptive metadata for eLearning content. It provided guidelines on how to catalog and describe eLearning resources, which later became a cornerstone for content discoverability and reusability in modern eLearning standards.
The outlined features of AICC showcase its forward-thinking approach in addressing the complexities of delivering digital learning. Through fostering flexibility, promoting cross-domain functionality, and paving the way for interoperable course structure, AICC made seminal contributions that continue to influence contemporary eLearning standards and practices.
SCORM: The Evolution of Digital Learning Standards
SCORM, which stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model, is a collection of standards and specifications for eLearning. It provides a framework that ensures the interoperability, accessibility, and reusability of eLearning content across various Learning Management Systems (LMSs). SCORM enables the packaging of eLearning content in a standardized format, facilitating the seamless transfer and tracking of learning materials and learner progress across different SCORM-compliant platforms.
The origins of SCORM trace back to the late 1990s when the United States Department of Defense (DoD), through its Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, identified the need for a standardized approach to eLearning. The primary motivation was to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of individualized training and education.
The development of SCORM was a collaborative effort that brought together the insights and guidelines from existing standards of the time, including AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee), IMS Global, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The goal was to amalgamate the best features of these standards into a new comprehensive standard that would address the challenges faced by the eLearning community.
The first edition of SCORM was released in 2000, with subsequent versions released over the following years, each building upon the previous to enhance and refine the standard. The most widely adopted version is SCORM 1.2, which was released in 2001, followed by SCORM 2004 which introduced sequencing and navigation capabilities among other improvements.
The inception of SCORM marked a significant milestone in the eLearning industry, setting forth a path towards more standardized, interoperable, and efficient eLearning solutions. By drawing upon the foundational principles laid down by earlier standards like AICC and integrating the evolving needs of the eLearning community, SCORM emerged as a robust framework that continues to influence eLearning standards and practices to this day.
One of the standout features of SCORM is its ability to package eLearning content in a standardized manner. SCORM defines a specific way of constructing an eLearning course using a manifest file and a defined directory structure. This packaging facilitates the seamless import and export of courses across different Learning Management Systems (LMSs), thereby promoting reusability and consistency.
Sequencing and Navigation
SCORM introduced the concept of sequencing and navigation, which allows course developers to define a specific path through the learning material. This feature enables the creation of prerequisites, adaptive learning paths, and more structured learning experiences.
Sharable Content Objects (SCOs)
At the heart of SCORM lies the concept of Sharable Content Objects (SCOs), which are the smallest units of eLearning content that can communicate with an LMS. SCOs encapsulate both the learning content and the logic required to communicate with the LMS, making them reusable across different SCORM-compliant systems.
SCORM emphasizes the importance of metadata for eLearning content. It provides guidelines for tagging content with relevant metadata, facilitating better content discovery, management, and reuse.
SCORM's main objective is to enhance interoperability among eLearning tools and platforms. By adhering to SCORM standards, course developers and eLearning platforms ensure that their content and systems can work seamlessly across different SCORM-compliant LMSs.
SCORM standards also cater to accessibility, ensuring that eLearning content is accessible to learners regardless of their abilities. This focus on accessibility underscores SCORM's commitment to creating inclusive learning experiences.
Similar to AICC, SCORM also specifies error handling procedures to ensure reliable communication between the content and the LMS, aiming to provide a smooth and error-free learning experience.
AICC and SCORM: A Comparative Lens
Flexibility and Integration
AICC is often heralded for its flexibility in hosting content separately from the LMS. This is particularly advantageous in niche sectors with specific regulatory or compliance requirements. On the flip side, SCORM’s integrated approach offers a more streamlined, albeit less flexible, framework for content delivery and tracking.
Does AICC Hold Significance in Today's E-learning Landscape?
The foundational principles and regulations of AICC paved the way for SCORM and subsequent e-learning specifications that followed. Innovations like xAPI and cmi5 have brought forth features that were beyond the scope of imagination three decades ago. So, does AICC retain its relevance in the contemporary e-learning arena?
Undoubtedly, it does. Despite its official dissolution in 2014, the legacy of AICC endures. Numerous prominent entities continue to leverage AICC-compliant technologies to fuel their e-learning endeavors. While SCORM, xAPI, and their ilk have carried the torch forward in enhancing standards, it's only fitting to pause and extend our gratitude to those trailblazing visionaries who ushered AICC into the e-learning sphere.
The discourse around AICC and SCORM unveils the intricate tapestry of eLearning standards. Each comes with its set of advantages, tailored to meet the varied demands of the evolving digital learning landscape.
As eLearning professionals stride towards creating more engaging and compliant learning experiences, the understanding and application of these standards remain pivotal. Amidst the burgeoning array of eLearning standards, AICC and SCORM stand as testament to the continuous evolution of digital learning, each bearing its unique imprint on the journey towards a more interconnected and standardized eLearning ecosystem.